Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine


Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2002) 01, 80 - 86
Research article
The Repeated Bout Effect: Does Evidence for a Crossover Effect Exist?
Declan A.J. Connolly1,, Brian V. Reed1, Malachy P. McHugh2

1 Human Performance Laboratory Patrick Gymnasium, UVM, Burlington, USA
2 NISMAT, Lenox Hill Hospital New York, New York, USA

Declan A.J. Connolly
✉ Human Performance Laboratory,Patrick Gymnasium, UVM, Burlington, VT 05401, USA

06-06-2002 -- Accepted: 19-07-2002 --
Published (online): 01-09-2002


Individuals undergoing an unaccustomed exercise bout incorporating a high degree of eccentric muscle contractions commonly experience delayed onset muscle soreness. The damage manifests itself via tenderness, loss of strength, swelling, elevated muscle enzyme activity and loss of flexibility. Following an initial "damage bout," a repeated bout results in reduced symptoms. This protective effect is known as the repeated bout effect (RBE) and can last up to 24 weeks between bouts. The mechanism for this RBE is unclear and both central and local mechanisms have been suggested. In an attempt to test the central hypothesis, 12 subjects (mean age = 22.5± 4yrs, ht = 167±9cm, mass = 71.5±13.5kg) underwent an exercise protocol whereby one leg was exercised eccentrically and following complete recovery; the contralateral leg was exercised in the same manner. Subjects were required to step on and off a 46-cm step for 20 minutes at a cadence of 15 steps/minute. One leg was used to go up the step (concentric) while the opposite was used to go down (eccentric). Approximately two weeks later and following complete recovery, the protocol was repeated with the concentrically exercise leg now performing the eccentric contraction. Data analyses indicate that muscle damage was induced during both trials on the eccentrically exercised leg as evidenced by a change in tenderness (bout 1 P < 0.05: bout 2 P < 0.01), pain scores (bout 1 P < 0.0001; bout 2 P < 0.01), and strength loss (bout 1 P = 0.001; bout 2 P = 0.001) over the four day follow up period. No tenderness was evident on the concentrically exercised limbs when compared to baseline (Bout 1: P =0.13, Bout 2: P = .06). Pain was significantly lower in bout two versus bout one (P< 0.04), however, we attribute this to a tolerance effect. Neither strength loss nor tenderness were significantly different between bouts. In the current study, damage was induced in both bouts in the eccentrically exercised limbs. This preliminary data does not provide evidence for a central mechanism in that an initial bout of eccentric exercise using one limb did not provide protection against damage from a repeated bout with the contralateral limb two weeks later.

Key words: Eccentric, exercise, muscle damage, protection, contralateral
Key Points



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