Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine ( 2017 ) 16 , 318 - 327

Research article
A Motivational Model of Physical Education and Links to Enjoyment, Knowledge, Performance, Total Physical Activity and Body Mass Index
Arto Gråstén1, , Anthony Watt2
Author Information
1 Faculty of Education, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia
2 College of Arts and Education, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Arto Gråstén
✉ Faculty of Education, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1307, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia
Email: arto.grasten@utas.edu.au
Publish Date
Received: 07-03-2016
Accepted: 29-05-2017
Published (online): 08-08-2017
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ABSTRACT

The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE) including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI) were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls) in North-East Finland. The results showed that task-involving climate in girls’ PE classes was related to enjoyment and knowledge through physical competence and intrinsic motivation, whereas task-involving climate was associated with enjoyment and knowledge via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge within boys. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes.

Key words: Motivation, physical education assessment, school health, structural equation


           Key Points
  • The present findings indicated that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way.
  • Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls.
  • Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes.
 
 


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