Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
 
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Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968
       SCImago 2016     SJR: 0.981   Cites per Doc. 2-Year: 2.04    3-Year: 2.17
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    IF 2-Year: 1.797    3-Year: 1.970    5-Year: 2.061    Average Citations PI: 7.7
 
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 05, 474 - 479
Review article
Artificial Intelligence in Sports Biomechanics: New Dawn or False Hope?
Roger Bartlett

School of Physical Education, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Roger Bartlett
✉ School of Physical Education, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Email: rbartlett@pooka.otago.ac.nz

Received:
-- -- Accepted: -- --
Published (online): 15-12-2006

ABSTRACT

This article reviews developments in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in sports biomechanics over the last decade. It outlines possible uses of Expert Systems as diagnostic tools for evaluating faults in sports movements (‘techniques’) and presents some example knowledge rules for such an expert system. It then compares the analysis of sports techniques, in which Expert Systems have found little place to date, with gait analysis, in which they are routinely used. Consideration is then given to the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in sports biomechanics, focusing on Kohonen self-organizing maps, which have been the most widely used in technique analysis, and multi-layer networks, which have been far more widely used in biomechanics in general. Examples of the use of ANNs in sports biomechanics are presented for javelin and discus throwing, shot putting and football kicking. I also present an example of the use of Evolutionary Computation in movement optimization in the soccer throw in, which predicted an optimal technique close to that in the coaching literature. After briefly overviewing the use of AI in both sports science and biomechanics in general, the article concludes with some speculations about future uses of AI in sports biomechanics.

Key words: Artificial intelligence, artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation, expert systems, Kohonen self-organizing maps, sports biomechanics
Key Points
Expert Systems remain almost unused in sports biomechanics, unlike in the similar discipline of gait analysis.
Artificial Neural Networks, particularly Kohonen Maps, have been used, although their full value remains unclear.
Other AI applications, including Evolutionary Computation, have received little attention.

  

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