Table 1. Frequencies (F) and percentages (%) for observed variables and differences between genders for ordinal variables (Mann Whitney test).
Males Females Mann Whitney
F % F % Z value p
Education -2.31 0.01
Elementary school (1) 118 42.45 62 34.64
High-school (2) 85 30.58 46 25.70
College/University degree (3) 75 26.90 71 39.70
Junior-age sport achievement/result -1.21 0.22
Regional level (1) 174 62.59 102 56.98
National level (2) 102 36.69 75 41.90
National team/International level (3) 2 0.72 2 1.12
Senior-age sport achievement/result -2.13 0.03
Regional level (1) 78 28.06 36 20.11
National level (2) 144 51.80 96 53.63
National team/International level (3) 56 20.14 47 26.26
Consumption of dietary supplements -0.13 0.89
No, I don’t consume it (1) 141 50.71 85 47.50
Rarely/occasionally (2) 104 37.41 84 46.93
Regularly (3) 33 11.87 10 5.59
Smoking cigarettes -0.04 0.96
No, I don’t smoke (1) 279 96.37 170 95.00
From time to time, but not daily (2) 6 2.15 5 2.80
Daily smoking (3) 4 1.40 4 2.20
Binge alcohol drinking 0.39 0.69
No, never (1) 240 86.33 157 87.70
Couple a times a year (2) 20 7.20 12 6.70
Once a month or so (3) 14 5.00 5 2.70
Once a week or so (4) 4 1.40 5 2.80
Number of doping testing 0.61 0.54
Never (1) 238 85.60 157 87.50
Once or twice (2) 29 10.46 15 8.50
Three times and mor (3) 11 3.94 7 4.00
Doping in sport 2.01 0.04
Don't think that doping occurs in my sport (1) 160 57.55 125 69.83
Not sure about it (2) 55 19.78 46 25.70
Occurs, but rarely (3) 35 12.59 6 3.35
Doping is often in my sport (4) 18 6.47 2 1.12
Number in parenthese presents numerical values of each ordinal variable.