Table 1. Mean (±SD) clinical characteristics of rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and untrained controls (UC), and their changes over the 3-year period (Δ score).
Variable RG (n = 25) UC (n = 25) Δ RG (n = 25) Δ UC (n = 25)
Age (yrs) T0 8.0 (0.6) 8.2 (0.6) 3.0 (0.1) 3.0 (0.2)
T3 10.9 (0.6) # 11.2 (0.5) #
Bone age (yrs) T0 7.8 (1.2) 7.8 (1.1) 3.2 (0.8) 3.4 (0.7)
T3 10.9 (0.9) # 11.2 (0.9) #
Body height (m) T0 1.30 (0.05) 1.30 (0.05) .17 (0.02) .19 (0.02)
T3 1.47 (0.06) # 1.49 (0.07) #
Body mass (kg) T0 27.0 (3.4) 28.9 (5.0) 10.2 (2.8) 13.7 (4.5)
T3 37.1 (5.0) # 42.7 (8.5) *#
BMI (kg·m-2) T0 15.9 (1.3) 17.0 (2.2) * 1.1 (.9) 2.1 (1.7)
T3 17.0 (1.6) # 19.1 (3.0)*#
Body fat % T0 19.8 (5.3) 26.0 (6.2) * 1.4 (3.3) 4.1 (4.8)
T3 21.2 (4.9) # 30.1 (8.5) *#
Fat mass (kg) T0 5.1 (1.9) 7.4 (2.7) * 2.4 (1.5) 5.4 (2.9)
T3 7.4 (2.5) # 12.8 (5.0) *#
Fat free mass (kg) T0 20.2 (2.0) 20.1 (2.5) 7.1 (2.0) 7.6 (2.3)
T3 27.3 (3.3) # 27.7 (4.3) #
WB BMD (g·cm-2) T0 .88 (.04) .84 (.05) * .08 (.03) .09 (.02)
T3 .96 (.05) # .93 (.07) #
FN BMD (g·cm-2) T0 .78 (.07) .72 (009) * .14(.06) .10(.06)
T3 .92 (.10) # .82 (0.12) *#
CMJ (cm) T0 23.2 (2.4) 19.2 (2.0) * 3.1 (2.5) 4.2 (2.3)
T3 26.2 (2.6) # 23.4 (2.7) *#
RJ15s (cm) T0 20.2 (1.8) 16.2 (2.3) * 2.8 (2.1) 3.4 (2.4)
T3 23.0 (2.7) 19.6 (2.4) *#
‡ Statistically significant differences between Δ RG and Δ UC; p < 0.05.
* Statistically significant differences between RG and UC; p < 0.05.
WB, whole body; BMC, bone mineral content; BMD, bone mineral density; FN, femoral neck; CMJ, countermovement jump; RJ15s, the rebound jumps for 15 seconds.
# Statistically significant changes between T3 and T0; p < 0.05.