Aguinaldo, A., Buttermore, J. and Chanmbers, H. (2003) Sequential body motion and shoulder joint torque between baseball pitchers of various levels. Available from URL: http://www.sandiegogaitlab.com/chp/pitching_abstract03.pdf
Albright, J.A., Jokl, P., Shaw, R. and Albright, J.P. (1978) Clinical study of baseball pitchers: correlation of injury to the throwing arm with method of delivery. American journal of sports medicine 6, 15-21.
Alexander, M.J.L. (1994) Overhand throwing mechanics and injuries. Critical Reviews in Physical & Rehabilitation Medicine. 6, 291-315.
Alexander, R.M. (1991) Optimum timing of muscle activation for simple models of throwing. Journal of Theoretical Biology 150, 349-372.
Altchek, D.W. and Hobbs, W.R. (2001) Evaluation and management of shoulder instability in the elite overhead thrower. Orthopedic Clinics of North America 32, 423-430.
Andrews, J.R. (1985) Bony injuries about the elbow in the throwing athlete. Instructional Course Lectures 34, 323-331.
Andrews, J.R., Broussard, T.S. and Carson, W.G. (1985) Arthroscopy of the shoulder in the management of partial tears of the rotator cuff: a preliminary report. Arthroscopy 1, 117-122.
Andrews, J.R., Carson, E.G. and McLeod, W.D. (1985) Glenoid labrum tears related to the long head of the biceps. American journal of sports medicine 13, 337-341.
Andrews, J.R. and Fleisig, G.S. (1998) Preventing throwing injuries. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 27, 187-188.
Andrews, J.R., Fleisig, G.S. and Whiteside, J.A. (1999) Little Leaguer's Elbow: evalution, treatment and prevention Sports Medicine Update 14, 11-15.
Andrews, J.R., Heggland, E.J., Fleisig, G.S. and Zheng, N. (2001) Relationship of ulnar collateral ligament strain to amount of medial olecranon osteotomy. American Journal of Sports Medicine 29, 716-721.
Andrews, J.R. and Wilk, K.E. (1994) The athlete's shoulder. Churchill Livingstone, New York.
Atwater, A.E. (1979) Biomechanics of overarm throwing movements and of throwing injuries. Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews 7, 43-85.
Atwater, A.E. (1973) Cinematographic analysis of human movement. Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews 1, 217-258.
Azar, F.M. (2003) History and examination of the thrower's elbow Sports Medicine and ArthroscopyRreview 11, 10-14.
Baltaci, G., Johnson, R. and Kohl, H.3rd. (2001) Shoulder range of motion characteristics in collegiate baseball players. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness 41, 236-242.
Barrett, D.D. and Burton, A.W. (2002) Throwing patterns used by collegiate baseball players in actual games. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 73, 19-27.
Basmajian, J.V. and Griffin, W.R.Jr. (1972) Function of anconeus muscle. An electromyographic study. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 54, 1712-1714.
Bennett, G. (1941) Shoulder and elbow lesions of the professional baseball pitcher. Journal of the Americal Medical Association 117, 510-514.
Bigliani, L.U., Codd, T.P., Connor, P.M., Levine, W.N., Littlefield, M.A. and Hershon, S.J. (1997) Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player. American Journal of Sports Medicine 25, 609-613.
Braatz, J.H. and Gogia, P.P. (1987) The mechanics of pitching. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 9, 56-69.
Brown, L.P., Niehues, S.L., Harrah, A., Yavorsky, P. and Hirshman, H.P. (1988) Upper extremity range of motion and isokinetic strength of the internal and external shoulder rotators in major league baseball players. American Journal of Sports Medicine 16, 577-585.
Burkhart, S.S. and Morgan, C. (2001) SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete. Orthopedic Clinics of North America 32, 431-441.
Burkhart, S.S., Morgan, C.D. and Kibler, W.B. (2003a) The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum of pathology. Part I: Pathoanatomy and biomechanics. Arthroscopy 19, 404-420.
Burkhart, S.S., Morgan, C.D. and Kibler, W.B. (2003b) The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum of pathology Part III: The SICK scapula, scapular dyskinesis, the kinetic chain, and rehabilitation. Arthroscopy 19, 641-661.
Burkhart, S.S., Morgan, C.D. and Kibler, W.B. (2003c) The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum of pathology. Part II: evaluation and treatment of SLAP lesions in throwers. Arthroscopy 19, 531-539.
Cain, E.L.Jr., Dugas, J.R., Wolf, R.S. and Andrews, J.R. (2003) Elbow injuries in throwing athletes: a current concepts review. American Journal of Sports Medicine 31, 621-635.
Clements, A.S., Ginn, K.A. and Henley, E.C. (2001) Comparison of upper limb musculoskeletal function and throwing performance in adolescent baseball players and matched controls. Physical Therapy in Sport Journal 2, 4-14.
Connor, P.M., Banks, D.M., Tyson, A.B., Coumas, J.S. and D'Alessandro, D.F. (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging of the asymptomatic shoulder of overhead athletes: a 5-year follow-up study. American Journal of Sports Medicine 31, 724-727.
Conte, S., Requa, R.K. and Garrick, J.G. (2001) Disability days in major league baseball [see comment]. American Journal of Sports Medicine 29, 431-436.
Crockett, H.C., Gross, L.B., Wilk, K.E., Schwartz, M.L., Reed, J., O'Mara, J., Reilly, M.T., Dugas, J.R., Meister, K., Lyman, S. and Andrews, J.R., (2002) Osseous adaptation and range of motion at the glenohumeral joint in professional baseball pitchers. American Journal of Sports Medicine 30, 20-26.
Cross, R. (2004) Physics of overarm throwing. American Journal of Physics 72, 305-312.
Curtis, A.S. and Deshmukh, R. (2003) Throwing injuries: Diagnosis and treatment. Arthroscopy 19(Suppl 1), 80-85.
Dillman, C.J., Fleisig, G. and Andrews, J. (1996) Mechanics of throwing. Churchill Livingstone, New York.
Dillman, C.J., Fleisig, G.S. and Andrews, J.R. (1993) Biomechanics of pitching with emphasis upon shoulder kinematics. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 18, 402-408.
Donatelli, R., Ellenbecker, T.S., Ekedahl, S.R., Wilkes, J.S., Kocher, K. and Adam, J. (2000) Assessment of shoulder strength in professional baseball pitchers. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 30, 544-551.
Duda, M. (1985) Prevention and treatment of throwing-arm injuries. Physician and Sportsmedicine 13, 181-184;186.
Ellenbecker, T.S., Roetert, E.P., Bailie, D.S., Davies, G.J. and Brown, S.W. (2002) Glenohumeral joint total rotation range of motion in elite tennis players and baseball pitchers Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 34, 2052-2056.
Elliot, B., Grove, J.R. and Gibson, B. (1988) Timing of the lower limb drive and throwing limb movement in baseball pitching. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics 4, 59-67.
Elliott, B., Grove, J.R., Gibson, B. and Thurston, B. (1986) A three-dimensional cinematographic analysis of the fastball and curveball pitches in baseball. IJSB: International Journal of Sport Biomechanics 2, 20-28.
Escamilla, R., Fleisig, G., Barrentine, S., Andrews, J. and Moorman, C. 3rd. (2002) Kinematic and kinetic comparisons between American and Korean professional baseball pitchers. Sports Biomechanics 1, 213-228.
Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Barrentine, S.W., Zheng, N. and Andrews, J.R. (1998) Kinematic comparisons of throwing different types of baseball pitches. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 14, 1-23.
Feltner, M. and Dapena, J. (1986) Dynamics of the shoulder and elbow joints of the throwing arm during a baseball pitch International Journal of Sport Biomechanics 2, 235-259.
Feltner, M.E. (1989) Three-dimensional interactions in a two-segment kinetic chain. Part II: Application to the throwing arm in baseball pitching. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics 5, 420-450.
Fleisig, G., Escamilla, R., Andrews, J., Matsuo, T., Satterwhite, Y. and Barrentine, S. (1996) Kinematic and kinetic comparison between baseball pitching and football passing. Journal of Applied Biomechancs 12, 207-224.
Fleisig, G.S. (1994) The biomechanics of baseball pitching. Doctoral thesis. University of Alabama.
Fleisig, G.S., Andrews, J.R., Dillman, C.J. and Escamilla, R.F. (1995) Kinetics of baseball pitching with implications about injury mechanisms. American Journal of Sports Medicine 23, 233-239.
Fleisig, G.S., Barrentine, S.W., Escamilla, R.F. and Andrews, J.R. (1996) Biomechanics of overhand throwing with implications for injuries. Sports Medicine 21, 421-437.
Fleisig, G.S., Barrentine, S.W., Zheng, N., Escamilla, R.F. and Andrews, J.R. (1999) Kinematic and kinetic comparison of baseball pitching among various levels of development. Journal of Biomechanics 32, 1371-1375.
Fleisig, G.S. and Escamilla, R.F. (1996) Biomechanics of the elbow in the throwing athlete. Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine 4, 62-68.
Gainor, B.J., Piotrowski, G., Puhl, J., Allen, W.C. and Hagen, R. (1980) The throw: biomechanics and acute injury. American Journal of Sports Medicine 8, 114-118.
Grana, W.A. and Rashkin, A. (1980) Pitcher's elbow in adolescents .American Journal of Sports Medicine 8, 333-336.
Grove, J.R., Elliott, B.C. and Gibson, B. (1988) Performance correlates of pitching from the windup and set positions. Journal of Applied Research in Coaching and Athletics 3, 274-288.
Gugenheim, J.J.Jr., Stanley, R.F., Woods, G.W. and Tullos, H.S. (1976) Little League survey: the Houston study. American Journal of Sports Medicine 4, 189-200.
Hamner, D.L., Pink, M.M. and Jobe, F.W. (2000) A modification of the relocation test: arthroscopic findings associated with a positive test. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 9, 263-267.
Hill, J.A. (1983) Epidemiologic perspective on shoulder injuries. Clinics in Sports Medicine 2, 241-246.
Hirashima, M., Kadota, H., Sakurai, S., Kudo, K. and Ohtsuki, T. (2002) Sequential muscle activity and its functional role in the upper extremity and trunk during overarm throwing. Journal of Sports Sciences 20, 301-310.
Jobe, F.W., Kvitne, R.S. and Giangarra, C.E. (1989) Shoulder pain in the overhand or throwing athlete. The relationship of anterior instability and rotator cuff impingement. Orthopaedic Review 18, 963-975.
Jobe, F.W. and Nuber, G. (1986) Throwing injuries of the elbow. Clinics in Sports Medicine 5, 621-636.
Jobe, F.W. and Pink, M.M. (1996) Operative techniques in upper extremity sports injuries. Mosby, St. Louis.
Johnson, L. (1992) Patterns of shoulder flexibility among college baseball players Journal of athletic training. 27, 44-45;48-49.
Joyce, M.E., Jelsma, R.D. and Andrews, J.R. (1995) Throwing injuries to the elbow. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review 3, 224-236.
Karduna, A.R., McClure, P.W., Michener, L.A. and Sennett, B. (2001) Dynamic measurements of three-dimensional scapular kinematics: A validation study. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 123, 184-190.
Ketlinski, R. (1971) How is the curveball thrown? The Athletic Journal 51, 75-76.
Kreighbaum, E. and Barthels, K.M. (1985) Biomechanics: A qualitative approach for studying human movement. 2nd. edition. Burgess Pub. Co., Minneapolis, Minn.
Kronberg, M. and Brostrom, L.A. (1990) Humeral head retroversion in patients with unstable humeroscapular joints. Clinical Orthopaedics 207-211.
Kronberg, M. and Brostrom, L.A. (1991) Proximal humeral osteotomy to correct the anatomy in patients with recurrent shoulder dislocations. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 5, 129-133.
Kronberg, M. and Brostrom, L.A. (1995) Rotation osteotomy of the proximal humerus to stabilise the shoulder. Five years' experience. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume 77, 924-927.
Kronberg, M., Brostrom, L.A. and Posch, E. (1993) Stability in relation to humeral head retroversion after surgical treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocations Orthopedics 16, 281-285.
Kronberg, M., Brostrom, L.A. and Soderlund, V. (1990) Retroversion of the humeral head in the normal shoulder and its relationship to the normal range of motion. Clinical Orthopaedics, 113-117.
Larson, R.L., Singer, K.M., Bergstrom, R. and Thomas, S. (1976) Little League survey: the Eugene study American Journal of Sports Medicine 4, 201-209.
Levin, J.S., Zheng, N., Dugas, J., Cain, E.L. and Andrews, J.R. (2004) Posterior olecranon resection and ulnar collateral ligament strain. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 13, 66-71.
Lyman, S., Fleisig, G.S., Andrews, J.R. and Osinski, E.D. (2002) Effect of pitch type, pitch count, and pitching mechanics on risk of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. American Journal of Sports Medicine 30, 463-468.
Lyman, S., Fleisig, G.S., Waterbor, J.W., Funkhouser, E.M., Pulley, L., Andrews, J.R., Osinski, E.D. and Roseman, J.M. (2001) Longitudinal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 33, 1803-1810.
MacWilliams, B.A., Choi, T., Perezous, M.K., Chao, E.Y.S. and McFarland, E.G., (1998) Characteristic ground-reaction forces in baseball pitchng. American Journal of Sports Medicine 26, 66-71.
Matsen, F.A.3rd., Harryman, D.T.2nd. and Sidles, J.A. (1991) Mechanics of glenohumeral instability. Clinics in Sports Medicine 10, 783-788.
Matsuo, T., Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Barrentine, S.W. and Andrews, J.R. (2001) Comparison of kinematic and temporal parameters between different pitch velocity groups. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 17, 1-13.
Matsuo, T., Fleisig, G.S., Zheng, N.Q. and Andrews, J.R. (2006) Influence of shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt on peak elbow varus torque for college baseball pitchers during simulated pitching. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 22, 93-102.
Matsuo, T., Flesig, G.S., Barrentine, S. and Zheng, N. (2003) Lateral trunk tilt influences the optimal shoulder abduction during baseball pitching. International Society of Biomechanics XIXth Congress, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Matsuo, T., Matsumoto, T., Mochizuki, Y., Takada, Y. and Saito, K. (2002) Optimal shoulder abduction angles during baseball pitching from maximal wrist velocity and minimal kinetics viewpoints. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 18, 306-320.
Matsuo, T., Matsumoto, T., Takada, Y. (1999) Influence of different shoulder abduction angles during baseball pitching on throwing performance and joint kinetics. International Society of Biomechanics.
Matsuo, T., Takada, Y., Matsumoto, T. and Saito, K. (2000) Biomechanical characteristics of sidearm and underhand baseball pitching: comparison with those of overhand and three-quarter-hand pitching. Japanese Journal of Biomechanics in Sports and Exercise 4, 243-252.
McClure, P.W., Michener, L.A., Sennett, B.J. and Karduna, A.R. (2001) Direct 3-dimensional measurement of scapular kinematics during dynamic movements in vivo. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 10, 269-277.
McFarland, E.G. and Wasik, M. (1998) Epidemiology of collegiate baseball injuries. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 8, 10-13.
Meister, K., (2000) Injuries to the shoulder in the throwing athlete. Part two: evaluation/treatment.[see comment] American Journal of Sports Medicine 28, 587-601.
Montgomery, J. and Knudson, D. (2002) A method to determine stride length for baseball pitching. Applied Research in Coaching and Athletics Annual 17, 75-84.
Murata, A. (2001) Shoulder joint movement of the non-throwing arm during baseball pitch--comparison between skilled and unskilled pitchers. Journal of Biomechanics 34, 1643-1647.
Nadler, S.F. (2004) Injury in a throwing athlete: understanding the kinetic chain. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 83, 79.
Nelson, T.L. (2001) Musculoskeletal Q & A: Practical answers to your critical questions. Preventing Little League elbow. Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine 18, 292.
Nicholls, R., Fleisig, G., Elliott, B., Lyman, S. and Osinski, E. (2003) Accuracy of qualitative analysis for assessment of skilled baseball pitching technique. Sports Biomechanics 2, 213-226.
Norkus, S.A. (2000) A comparison of the three-dimensional characteristics of a full-effort overhand throw and the throwing motions involved in a rehabilitative throwing program. Doctoral thesis, The University of Toledo.
Olsen, S.J.2nd., Fleisig, G.S., Dun, S., Loftice, J. and Andrews, J.R. (2006) Risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers. American Journal of Sports Medicine 34, 905-912.
Osbahr, D.C., Cannon, D.L. and Speer, K.P. (2002) Retroversion of the humerus in the throwing shoulder of college baseball pitchers. American Journal of Sports Medicine 30, 347-353.
Pappas, A.M., Zawacki, R.M. and McCarthy, C.F. (1985a) Rehabilitation
of the pitching shoulder. American Journal of Sports Medicine 13,
Pappas, A.M., Zawacki, R.M. and Sullivan, T.J. (1985b) Biomechanics of
baseball pitching. A preliminary report. American Journal of Sports
Medicine 13, 216-222.
Pieper, H.G. (1998) Humeral torsion in the throwing arm of handball players. American Journal of Sports Medicine 26, 247-253.
Pincivero, D.M., Heinrichs, K. and Perrin, D.H. (1994) Medial elbow stability. Clinical implications. Sports Medicine 18, 141-148.
Pomianowski, S., O'Driscoll, S.W., Neale, P.G., Park, M.J., Morrey, B.F. and An, K.N. (2001) The effect of forearm rotation on laxity and stability of the elbow. Clinical Biomechanics 16, 401-407.
Pradhan, R.L., Itoi, E., Hatakeyama, Y., Urayama, M. and Sato, K. (2001) Superior labral strain during the throwing motion. A cadaveric study. American Journal of Sports Medicine 29, 488-492.
Rash, G.S. and Shapiro, R. (1995) A three-dimensional dynamic analysis of the quarterback's throwing motion in American football. Journal of Applied Biomechancs 11, 443-459.
Reagan, K.M., Meister, K., Horodyski, M.B., Werner, D.W., Carruthers, C. and Wilk, K. (2002) Humeral retroversion and its relationship to glenohumeral rotation in the shoulder of college baseball players. American Journal of Sports Medicine 30, 354-360.
Roberts, T.W. (1971) Cinematography in biomechanical investigation: selected topics in biomechanics. CIC Symposium on Biomechanics. Chicago Ser. Ed. 41-50.
Sabick, M.B., Torry, M.R., Lawton, R.L. and Hawkins, R.J. (2004) Valgus torque in youth baseball pitchers: A biomechanical study. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 13, 349-355.
Saitou, K., Ohgi, Y., Ichikawa, H., Adachi, K., Miyaji, C. and Takai, S. (2000) Comparison of forearm motion before and after ball-release between fast ball and curve ball pitches. In: 5th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science Proceedings Jyväskylä: Finaland. Eds: Avela, K.P. and Komulainen, J. 638.
Saitou, K., Ohgi, Y., Ichikawa, H., Inoue, S., Matsuo, T., Adachi, K., Miyaji, C. and Takai, S. (2001) Change in upper limb muscle activity when ball speed increases and type of pitch differs.) Bulletin of Institute of Health and Sport Sciences 24, 79-88.
Sakurai, S., Ikegami, Y., Okamoto, A., Yabe, K. and Toyoshima, S. (1993) A three-dimensional cinematographic analysis of upper limb movement during fastball and curveball baseball pitches. Journal of Applied Bbiomechanics 9, 47-65.
Selecky, M.T., Tibone, J.E., Yang, B.Y., McMahon, P.J. and Lee, T.Q. (2003) Glenohumeral joint translation after arthroscopic thermal capsuloplasty of the rotator interval. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 12, 139-143.
Shimada, K., Ae, M., Fujii, N., Yuki, M. and Kawamura, T. (2000) Biomechanical study on the functions of the torso and lower limbs in baseball pitching. Japanese Journal of Biomechanics in Sports and Exercise 4, 47-60.
Sisto, D.J., Jobe, F.W., Moynes, D.R. and Antonelli, D.J. (1987) An electromyographic analysis of the elbow in pitching. American Journal of Sports Medicine 15, 260-263.
Stevenson, J.M. (1985) Finger release sequence for fastball and curveball pitches. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 110, 21-25.
Stodden, D.F., Fleisig, G.S., McLean, S.P., Lyman, S.L. and Andrews, J.R. (2001) Relationship of pelvis and upper torso kinematics to pitched baseball velocity. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 17, 164-172.
Tarbell, T. (1971) Some mechanical aspects of the overarm throw. Selected topics in biomechanics: Proceedings of the C.I.C. Symposium on Biomechanics. Chicago, USA.
Tullos, H.S. and King, J.W. (1973) Throwing mechanism in sports. Orthopedic clinics of North America 4, 709-720.
Walsh, D. (1989) Shoulder evaluation of the throwing athlete. Sports Medicine Update 4, 24-27.
Wang, Y.T., Ford, H.T. and Shin, D.M. (1995) Three dimensional kinematic analysis of baseball pitching in acceleration phase. Perceptual and Motor Skills 80, 43-48.
Watkins, R.G., Dennis, S., Dillin, W.H., Schnebel, B., Schneiderman, G., Jobe, F., Farfan, H., Perry, J. and Pink, M. (1989) Dynamic EMG analysis of torque transfer in professional baseball pitchers. Spine 14, 404-408.
Werner, S.L., Fleisig, G.S., Dillman, C.J. and Andrews, J.R. (1993) Biomechanics of the elbow during baseball pitching. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 17, 274-278.
Werner, S.L., Gill, T.J., Murray, T.A., Cook, T.D. and Hawkins, R.J. (2001) Relationships between throwing mechanics and shoulder distraction in professional baseball pitchers. American Journal of Sports Medicine 29, 354-358.
Werner, S.L., Murray, T.A., Hawkins, R.J. and Gill, T.J. (2002) Relationship between throwing mechanics and elbow valgus in professional baseball pitchers. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 11, 151-155.
Wilk, K.E., Meister, K., Fleisig, G. and Andrews, J.R. (2000) Biomechanics of the overhead throwing motion. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review 8, 124-134.
Wilson, F.D., Andrews, J.R., Blackburn, T.A. and McCluskey, G. (1983) Valgus extension overload in the pitching elbow. American Journal of Sports Medicine 11, 83-88.
Xue, Q. and Masuda, K. (1997) A biomechanical study of fast throwing movements of the shoulder in baseball pitching. Chinese Medical Journal 110, 220-224.
Zheng, N., Fleisig, G. and Andrews, J. (1999) Biomechanics and injuries
of the shoulder during throwing. Athletic Therapy Today 4,