Table 1. Reduced Spanish version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire.
Authors Year Instrument Dimensions
Gill Gross and Huddleston 1983 Participation of Motives Questionnaire (PMQ) or Participation Motivation Inventory (PMI) Achievement/status,
team atmosphere, fitness, energy release, skill development, friendship and fun.
Gavin 1992 Fitness Incentives Quizzes Body motives, social motives and psychological motives
Dwyer 1992 Revised version of PMQ Team orientation, achievement/status, fitness, friendship, skill development, and fun/excitement/challenge
Frederick and Ryan 1993 Motivation for Physical Activities Measure (MPAM) Body motives, competence and fun
Markland and Hardy 1993 Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI) Body image and weight, fun and wellness, prevention and positive health, competition,
affiliation, muscular resistance and strength, social status, stress control, flexibility and agility, challenge, and health emergencies
Markland and Ingledew 1997 EMI-2
Marsh 1996 Physical Self-Description Questionnaire
Physical appearance, muscular strength, resistance, flexibility, health, adherence, overweight, skills and self-esteem
Ryan et al. 1997 Motives for Physical Activity Measure-Revised (MPAM-R) Health, appearance, motor competence and learn new skills, social, and fun/intrinsic
Telama et al. 2002 - Well-being motives, competition motives, appearance motives and social motives
Morris and Rogers 2004 Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) Mastery, enjoyment, psychological condition, physical condition, appearance, others’
expectations, affiliation and competition/ego