Table 5. Comparison of the muscle thickness for shoulder prime mover and stabilizing muscles between the EBG and EB-DOG (Units: cm).
EBG EB-DOG F(p) for
time factor
F(p) for
group x time interaction
Pre-test Post-test Change Pre-test Post-test Change
Upper trapezius 1.42 (.19) 1.51 (.17) .08 (.23) 1.40 (.24) 1.51 (.19) .11 (.14) 7.502 (.011) .158 (.694)
Lower trapezius 1.53 (.36) 1.42 (.22) -.11 (.33) 1.47 (.19) 1.69 (.22)* .21 (.12) 1.275 (.269) 12.177 (.002)
Serratus anterior 1.28 (.12) 1.40 (.18) .12 (.15) 1.29 (.09) 1.53 (.22)* .23 (.24) 21.352 (.000) 2.218 (.148)
Supraspinatus 1.36 (.16) 1.32 (.12) -.03 (.13) 1.37 (.24) 1.33 (.14) -.03 (.22) 1.139 (.296) .003 (.955)
Infraspinatus 1.41 (.15) 1.37 (.22) -.03 (.17) 1.37 (.12) 1.40 (.10) .03 (.13) .006 (.938) 1.617 (.215)
Rhomboid major 1.53 (.30) 1.56 (.27) .02 (.16) 1.50 (.22) 1.63 (.27) .12 (.33) 2.254 (.145) .956 (.337)
Pectoralis major 1.24 (.11) 1.38 (.20) .13 (.22) 1.30 (.15) 1.45 (.15) .15 (.18) 13.437 (.001) .022 (.883)
Middle deltoid 1.36 (.21) 1.40 (.23) .04 (.22) 1.47 (.19) 1.56 (.29) .09 (.20) 2.618 (.118) .374 (.546)
Values are described mean ± SD.
*Bonferroni correction p < 0.006 for within-group differences.
†Bonferroni correction p < 0.006 for between group differences of change value (post value minus pre value). †Bonferroni correction p < 0.006 for time factor.
¶Bonferroni correction p < 0.006 for group x time interaction. EBG: elastic band exercise group; EB-DOG: elastic band plus double oscillation exercise group.