Table 2. Values of ambulatory blood pressure and the differences of blood pressure between the experimental sessions (i.e. delta) at different periods of post-experimental sessions.
Awake Asleep Awake P-Value
1-6 h 7-13 h 14-20 h 21-24 h Interaction Time Condition
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Control without exercise (CON) 125.1 ± 11.1 126.3 ± 9.2 116.0 ± 8.9 125.3 ± 8.4 0.018 <0.001 0.035
Beetroot juice with exercise (BJE) 119.7 ± 7.8* 123.5 ± 9.5 113.9 ± 7.9 124.4 ± 7.2
Fruit soda with exercise (FSE) 123.5 ± 8.7 123.5 ± 8.8 112.4 ± 6.7 120.4 ± 7.3
Delta BJE -5.3 ± 6.4 -2.8 ± 6.1 -2.1 ± 6.7 -0.9 ± 6.2 <0.001 0.988 0.789
Delta FSE -1.6 ± 4.9 -2.9 ± 4.2 -3.6 ± 7.6 -4.9 ± 7.2
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Control without exercise (CON) 81.4 ± 8.4 82.0 ± 6.4 67.8 ± 7.0 81.0 ± 7.6 0.125 <0.001 0.118
Beetroot juice with exercise (BJE) 78.5 ± 5.4 78.5 ± 6.7 67.5 ± 7.0 80.3 ± 7.3
Fruit soda with exercise (FSE) 82.4 ± 7.0 80.1 ± 8.3 66.6 ± 6.3 78.2 ± 9.5
Delta BJE -2.9 ± 6.9 -3.5 ± 4.2 -0.3 ± 5.7 -0.7 ± 4.4 0.061 0.671 0.578
Delta FSE 1.0 ± 4.2 -1.9 ± 4.8 -1.2 ± 7.2 -2.8 ± 6.2
† = Significant difference in comparison to delta FSE - CON (p < 0.05). Delta BJE = means the values of blood pressure of the BJE session – the values of blood pressure of the control session; Delta FSE = means the values of blood pressure of the FSE session – the values of blood pressure of the control session.
Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation.
* = Significant difference in comparison to CON and FSE sessions (p ≤ 0.05).