Table 4. Before- and after-training data for all outcome measures with main analyses of variance results
Measures LLTL group LHTL group ANOVA p (η2) values
Before After Mean change (95% CI) Before After Mean change (95% CI) Time Group Interaction
Hematological parameters
Erythrocyte count (×106/μL) 4.9 (0.3) 4.9 (0.3) -.01
(-.09, .07)
4.8 (0.2) 4.9 (0.2) .078
(-.04, .19)
.290 (.051) .204 (.072) .186 (.078)
Hemoglobin concentration (g/dL) 14.7 (0.7) 14.7 (0.7) -.06
(-.37, .26)
14.2 (0.8) 14.4 (0.8) .21
(-.10, .52)
.451 (.026) .158 (.088) .201 (.073)
Hematocrit (%) 45.2 (2.4) 45.6 (2.1) .43
(-.38, 1.22)
44.2 (2.7) 45.1 (2.7) .82
(-.87, 2.51)
.158 (.089) .406 (.032) .643 (.010)
Reticulocyte count (%) 0.9 (0.2) 0.8 (0.1) -.15
(-.29, -.02)
1.0 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2) -.14
(-.25, -.03)
.001 (.375)* .114 (.110) .862 (.001)
Erythropoietin concentration (mU/mL) 8.8 (2.3) 8.5 (4.0) -.30
(-2.38, 1.77)
12.1 (2.8) 10.4 (3.3) -1.75
(-3.64, .14)
.122 (.105) .028 (.201) .268 (.055)
MCV (μm2) 91.5 (3.6) 92.5 (2.1) 1.00
(-0.34, 2.35)
92.6 (2.3) 92.8 (2.7) .18
(-1.68, 2.04)
.268 (.056) .510 (.020) .440 (.027)
MCH (μμg) 29.9 (1.2) 29.8 (1.0) -.069
(-.30, .16)
29.7 (0.8) 29.6 (0.9) -.04
(-.23, .15)
.420 (.030) .694 (.007) .851 (.002)
MCHC (g/dL) 32.6 (0.6) 32.2 (0.7) -.43
(-.82, -.05)
32.1 (0.5) 32.0 (0.9) -.10
(-.79, .59)
.153 (.091) .087 (.128) .358 (.039)
Exercise economy and metabolism parameters
VO2
(mL/kg/30 min)
1425.7 (77.9) 1458.1 (56.4) 32.4
(-12.3, 75.1)
1529.6 (114.4) 1376.9 (89.3) -152.7
(-237.2, -68.1)
.011 (.262)* .692 (.007) .000 (.457)*
O2Hb (mU) .7 (5.9) 1.4 (3.7) .69
(-3.47, 4.84)
1.4 (2.4) 3.3 (3.0) 1.83
(-.01, 3.67)
.236 (.063) .315 (.046) .586 (.014)
HHb (mU) 7.6 (4.5) 7.3 (3.1) -.21
(-3.12, 2.71)
6.8 (3.5) 5.2 (2.2) -1.60
(-3.96, .76)
.301 (.048) .210 (.071) .423 (.029)
TOI (%) 50.5 (4.5) 51.1 (4.6) .66
(-2.64, 3.95)
48.0 (2.9) 54.2 (3.3) 6.18
(3.14, 9.21)
.003 (.339)* .809 (.003) .013 (.250)*
Blood lactate level (mmol) 3.4 (1.2) 2.8 (.9) -.61
(-1.52, .30)
3.5 (1.4) 2.4 (.9) -1.05
(-1.70, -0.39)
.004 (.325)* .641 (.010) .395 (.033)
Hemodynamic function parameters
HR
(beats/30 min)
4685.4 (452.4) 4635.7 (490.3) -49.7
(-203.4, 104.0)
4360.8 (204.9) 4126.3 (274.6) -234.5
(-346.7,
-122.3)
.003 (.329)* .010 (.268)* .044 (.172)*
SV (mL/30 min) 2696.2 (267.1) 2575.7 (204.6) -120.5
(-311.1, 70.1)
2402.1 (206.2) 2538.5 (381.4) 136.4†
(22.6, 295.5)
.889 (.001) .101 (.118) .033 (.191)*
EDV
(mL/30 min)
3106.9 (305.8) 3413.0 (243.5) 306.1
(104.1, 508.1)
3484.5 (509.3) 3729.3 (405.0) 244.8
(76.4, 413.1)
.000 (.491)* .024 (.211)* .613 (.012)
ESV (mL/30 min) 563.1 (270.7) 770.0 (254.8) 206.9
(51.9, 362.0)
809.9 (224.1) 922.7 (291.0) 112.9
(15.1, 210.7)
.001 (.401)* .054 (.158) .271 (.055)
CO (L/30 min) 401.8 (55.0) 408.4 (42.4) 6.65
(-20.0, 33.3)
398.0 (37.8) 384.5 (37.8) -13.5
(-39.5, 12.4)
.687 (.007) .390 (.034) .245 (.061)
Exercise performance parameters
VO2max (mL/kg/min) 55.9 (2.0) 58.2 (2.1) 2.35
(1.54, 3.17)
55.3 (3.0) 60.7 (2.4) 5.40
(4.32, 6.48)
.000 (.878)* .325 (.044) .000 (.527)*
3000 m time trial (seconds) 585.7 (24.5) 566.3 (24.9) -19.5
(-25.1, -13.8)
581.8 (23.2) 547.8 (25.9) -34.0
(-45.6, -22.4)
.000 (.790)* .256 (.058) .022 (.217)*
*p < 0.05 significant interaction or main effect.
†p < 0.05 versus before training. LLTL, living low-training low; LHTL, living high-training low; ANOVA, analysis of variance; CI, confidence interval; MCV, mean corpuscular volume; MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin; MCHC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; VO2, oxygen consumption; O2Hb, oxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin; HHb, deoxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin; TOI, tissue oxygenation index; HR, heart rate; SV, stroke volume, EDV, end-systolic volume; ESV, end-systolic volume; CO, cardiac output; VO2max, maximal oxygen consumption. Data are presented as means (±standard deviations).