Table 2. Systematic review and characteristic of included studies.
Study Population Plyometric training Outcomes (pre-post change)
Sports level Age
(mean ± SD in years)
Gender Sample size (n) Duration
(weeks)
Days a week (duration of session) Type of exercises (jumps in total) CMJ (%) DJ (%) Muscle damage or muscle soreness
Arazi et al., 2012 Semi-professional basketball players TP: 18.0 ± 1.4 RP#: 18.0 ± 0.6
C:20.4 ± 0.6
M TP: 6
RP#: 6
C: 6
8 3
(40 min)
AJs, SJs, SDs (3564) TP: 29.3%
RP#: 30.4%
C: -1.1%
Arazi et al., 2014 Healthy men, experienced in plyometrics TP: 20.5 ± 0.3 RP$: 20.7 ± 0.5 M TP: 7
RP$: 7
6 2
(35 min)
DJs
(1200)
TP: 9.1%
RP$: 8.6%
Argus, 2011 Professional rugby players TP: 24 ± 2
RP: 23 ± 2
AP: 25 ± 2
M TP: 8
RP: 9
AP: 11
4 2 CMJs
(144)
TP: 1.1%**Δ
RP: 3.7%**
AP: 6.2%**
Impellizzeri et al., 2008 Amateur soccer players 25 ± 4 M TP: 18
RP$: 19
4 3
(15 min warm-up)
VJs, BJs, BRJs, DJs (4500) TP: 14.6%
RP$: 6.5%
Likert scale (0-6max)
TP>RP$
Jurado-Lavanant et al., 2015 Healthy and physically active men 21.2 ± 2.9 M TP: 20
RP#: 20
C: 25
10 2
(35 min)
VJs
(6500)
30 cm (box)
TP: 7.3%
RP#: 4.8%
C: 2.4%
50 cm (box)
TP: 13.4%
RP#: 3.6%
C: 1.6%
CK
TP>RP#
Jurado-Lavanant et al., 2017 Physical education students TP: 20.8 ± 3.1
RP#: 21.8 ± 3.4
C: 20.1 ± 2.2
M TP: 20
RP#: 20
C: 25
10 2
(35 min)
VJs
(6500)
TP: 13.1%
RP#: 14.6%
C: -0.3%
Khlifa et al., 2010 Elite basketball players TP: 23.6 ± 0.3
RP^: 23.1 ± 0.3
C: 24.2 ± 0.2
M TP: 9
RP^: 9
C: 9
10 2-3
(90 min)
VJs, BJs, BRJs, DJs
(11930)
TP: 7.0%
RP^: 12.2%
C: 1.8%
Kibele et al., 2015 Physically active students TP: 24.1 ± 4.6
RP: 24.1 ± 3.4
M TP: 13
RP: 20
7 2
(40 min)
CMJs, DJs, HJs (1050) TP: 5.3%
RP: 13.6%
Kobak et al., 2015 Students 22.5 ± 1.41 M: 21
F: 13
TP: 11
RP#: 12
C: 11
8 2
(60 min)
DJs, SJs, CPs, LJs, TJs, DJs, SLJ (4196) TP: 10.7%
RP#: 13.0%
C: 8.9%
Makaruk et al., 2010 Students experienced in drop jumps 21.2 ± 1.3 M TP: 14
RP^: 14
C: 14
6 3 (40-45 min) DJs
(660)
TP&: 11.6%
RP^&: 6.1%
C: 2.0%
30 cm (box)
TP&: 8.7%£
RP^&: 2.0%£
C: 0.8%
Makaruk et al., 2014 Collegiate basketball and volleyball players,
track and field athletes
TP: 21.7 ± 2.2
AP: 21.3 ± 1.9
C: 20.9 ± 1.8
M TP: 11
AP: 11
C: 11
5 3 DJs
(588)
30 cm (box)
TP: 9.0%
AP: 8.4%
C: 0.8%
60 cm (box)
TP: 6.0%
AP: 8.5%
C: -0.5%
Markovic et al., 2011 Physical education students 22 ± 3 M RP: 12
AP: 10
C: 10
7 3 CMJs
(420)
RP: 3.4%
AP: 8.6%
C: 0.6%
Markovic et al., 2013 Physical education students 23.7 ± 1.7 M TP: 12
RP^: 11
RP: 12
AP: 12
C: 13
8 3 CMJs
(1404)
TP: 11.6%
RP^: 7.5%
RP: 7.2% £
AP: 8.4%
C: 1.0%
(McClenton et al., 2008) Recreationally trained students TP: 21.3 ± 2.0
RP: 22.2 ± 2.5
C: 21.5 ± 1.7
M: 14
F: 7
TP: 11
RP: 10
C: 10
6 2 DJs, SJs, QQJs, CJs
(274-278)
TP: 10.5%
RP: 5.3%
C: 1.3%
(Ploeg et al., 2010) Untrained individuals M: 21.8 ± 2.3
F: 22.4 ± 3.5
M: 16
F: 23
TP: 8
RP#: 10
C: 10
6 2 HPs, VJs, STLJs, HJs, SLJs, BJs, TJs, JBs
(1460)
TP: -2.6%
RP#: 0.7%
C: 5.9%
(Robinson et al., 2004) Physically active women TP: 20.6 ± 0.6
RP#: 19.8 ± 0.3
F TP: 15
RP#: 16
8 3
(65 min)
BJs, HPs, Js
(3–5 sets of 10–20 reps of 10 drills per training)
TP: 32.5%
RP#: 33.5%
Muscle soreness
TP>RP#
(Stemm and Jacobson, 2007) Physically active men 24 ± 2.5 M TP: 8
RP#: 7
C: 9
6 2 SJs, HJ, TJs
(1620)
TP: 7.8%
RP#: 6.5%
C: 1.5%
AP-assisted plyometrics, RP-resisted plyometrics, TP-traditional plyometrics, C-control group (without intervention),
#-aquatic,
- dumbbells,
$-sand,
^-weight vest,,
‡- resistance of the elastic cords,
†-unstable surface, BJs-bounds, BRJs-broad jumps, CJs-contrast jumps, CMJs-countermovement jumps, CPs- calf pops, DJs- drop or depth jumps, HJs-hurdle jumps, HPs-hops, JBs-jumps to box, Js-jumps, LJs-lunge jumps, QQJs- quarter quick jumps, Sds- skipping drills, SJs-squat jumps, SLJs-single leg jumps, STLJs-standing long jumps, TJs-tuck jumps, VJs-vertical jumps.
**-lack of data regarding significance,
&-unpublished data,
£-form of resisted plyometrics included in meta-analysis,
↑-indicates significant increase,
▲-small effect size,
Δ-trivial effect size