Table 3. Means (SD) of kinematics for the pivot leg at three different RHK heights during the return period.
Variables LT MT HT F value p value
Average hip flexion # 14.10 (11.33) 15.92 (8.48) 29.80 (11.94) 23.482 0.000**
Average hip abduction # 36.46 (5.09) 37.68 (6.78) 42.78 (6.67) 9.645 0.001**
Average hip external rotation 2.55 (10.18) 2.39 (9.13) 3.01 (10.57) 0.088 0.916
Maximum hip flexion #μ 23.68 (13.46) 25.35 (11.56) 40.13 (14.77) 17.237 0.000**
Minimum hip flexion # 3.74 (11.33) 5.82 (9.13) 16.13 (9.08) 15.418 0.000**
Maximum hip abduction # 46.02 (3.51) 47.04 (5.39) 53.28 (6.19) 13.168 0.000**
Minimum hip abduction # 19.10 (7.73) 20.67 (9.63) 24.88 (8.63) 5.640 0.011 *
Maximum hip external rotation 12.66 (12.11) 13.01 (10.75) 15.74 (13.79) 1.495 0.246
Maximum hip internal rotation 8.55 (10.73) 8.18 (11.85) 8.05 (11.62) 0.035 0.966
Hip range of sagittal motion 19.94 (11.88) 19.52 (11.38) 23.99 (10.31) 2.171 0.138
Hip range of frontal motion 26.92 (5.99) 26.37 (5.76) 28.40 (5.54) 0.874 0.431
Hip range of horizontal motion 21.21 (9.59) 21.20 (10.96) 23.79 (10.41) 1.010 0.380
Average knee flexion # 20.03 (9.62) 19.70 (6.77) 16.31 (9.25) 3.829 0.037 *
Average knee valgus # 6.07 (4.05) 6.38 (3.86) 7.69 (3.10) 4.224 0.028 *
Average knee external rotation # -6.21 (4.19) -6.51 (5.21) -3.12 (4.30) 7.873 0.003 *
Maximum knee flexion 33.64 (9.62) 33.50 (10.19) 32.42 (9.47) 0.452 0.642
Minimum knee flexion 13.97 (6.97) 13.30 (8.09) 8.90 (11.73) 4.217 0.028 *
Maximum knee valgus # 10.37 (3.67) 10.52 (3.64) 12.06 (2.89) 5.124 0.015 *
Maximum knee varus -0.39 (4.48) -0.44 (4.16) -1.27 (4.12) 1.881 0.176
Maximum knee external rotation # -0.12 (5.83) 0.11 (6.71) 3.94 (5.87) 9.556 0.001**
Maximum knee internal rotation # 12.77 (5.06) 12.35 (5.92) 9.61 (4.67) 3.917 0.035 *
Knee range of sagittal motion 20.87 (7.54) 21.90 (11.78) 24.45 (11.99) 2.137 0.142
Knee range of frontal motion # 10.16 (2.22) 9.95 (2.30) 10.70 (2.47) 1.276 0.299
Knee range of horizontal motion 13.36 (6.01) 13.37 (6.62) 14.60 (7.06) 0.722 0.497
* p < 0.05;
** p < 0.01;
# LT vs HT p < 0.05;
† MT vs HT p < 0.05;
RHK, round house kicking; SD, standard deviation; LT, low height; MT, middle height; HT, high height.