Table 3. Characteristics of included studies studying starts and turns performance (n=5).
Author (Year) Quality
Age (Mean±SD) S&C Training Intervention Performance
Outcome Measurements
Born et al (2020) 9 N=21: 9M, 12F
National/International Level
EG1: 17.1 ± 2.6
EG2: 17.1 ± 2.7
Maximal strength or vertical jump trainings (6-week)
EG1: Maximal Strength Training
EG2: Vertical Jump Training
FC Start
Performance Test
Kinematic Parameters:

Time on the block

Takeoff horizontal velocity

Takeoff angle

Kinetic Parameters:

Peak power

Peak resultant horizontal & vertical force

Peak horizontal rear foot force

Peak resultant grab force

Karpinski et al (2020) 12 N=16: 16M
National level
EG: 20.2 ± 1.17
CG: 20.0 ± 1.9
Core strengthening training
EG: Core Strengthening Training
CG: Normal Training
FC Swim Block Start & Turn
Start Performance

Entry Distance & Velocity

Time in the air (Flight Time)

Dive angle

Reaction time (Start Time)

Turn Performance

Time 5m after flip turn

Average Velocity after the flip

Rejman et al (2017) 6 N=9: 9M
National Level
21.89 ± 3.41
Plyometric training (6-week)
EG: Plyometric training
Swimming Block Start Performance Temporal Parameters:

Start, Take off, Flight, and Glide time

Spatial Parameters:

Take-off, Entry, Glide angle

Average & Instantaneous Take-off, Flight, & Glide velocities
Bishop et al (2009) 13 N=22: Sex: Not mentioned
Regional Level
EG: 13.1 ± 1.4
CG: 12.6 ± 1.9
Plyometric training (8-week)
EG: Plyometric training
CG: Normal Training
Swimming Block Start Performance Start Performance

Swim time to 5.5m

Angle out of blocks (Dive Angle)

Angle of entry into water (Entry Angle)

Distance to head contact (Flight


Time to head contact (Flight Time)

Velocity of take-off to contact

Rebutini et al (2016) 9 N=10: 7M, 3F
Competitive or regularly trained
M: 22 ± 1.4
F: 21.3 ± 7.6
Plyometric long jump training
EG: Plyometric long jump training
Swimming Block
Start Performance
Kinematic Parameters

Horizontal & Vertical Displacement of Centre of Mass

Horizontal Velocity at Water Entrance

Horizontal & Vertical Take-off Velocity

Peak of Joint Angular Velocities of Hip and Knee

Kinetic Parameters

Rate of Torque Development of Hip & Knee

Peak Torque of Hip & Knee

Peak Horizontal & Vertical Force


Angle of Resultant Force

CG: Control group; EG: Experimental group; F: Female FC: Front Crawl (Freestyle); M: Male; N/A: Not applicable; S&C: Strength and Conditioning; SD: Standard Deviation.