Table 5. Results of Included Studies studying starts and turns performance (n=5).
Author Intervention Start / Turn Performance Biomechanical Parameters Other Outcomes
Born et al (2020) Maximal strength or vertical jump trainings (6-week)
EG1: Maximal Strength Training
EG2: Vertical Jump Training
Start Time to 5m (s):
EG1: 1.60±0.14; 1.60±0.12
EG2: 1.62±0.07; 1.61±0.07
No sig. change in both EGs (p>0.05)
Peak resultant horizontal force (x body mass) (N):
EG1: 1.15±0.19; 1.18±0.18
EG2: 1.30±0.18; 1.34±0.19

Sig change in EG2 only with moderate ES (p<0.05, ES: 0.23)

no sig changed in other parameters (p>0.05)
Swim Time to 5m (s):
EG1: 1.72±0.07; 1.68±0.09
EG2: 1.66±0.06; 1.64±0.07
Sig. improved in EG1 (p=0.03) for U17 Swimmers
Karpinski et al (2020) Core strengthening training
EG: Core Strengthening Training
CG: Normal Training
Start Performance:
Reaction Time (s):
EG: 0.80±0.03; 0.71±0.03
CG: 0.83±0.05; 0.79±0.04

Sig. improve in EG with very large ES (p=0.001, ES: 2.87)

Sig. diff. between group after training (p<0.001)

Time in the air (Flight time) (s):

No sig. change in both groups (p>0.05)

Dive angle (degree):

No sig. change in both groups (p>0.05)

Entry Distance (m):

No sig. change in EG (p>0.05)

Sig. change in CG (p=0.013)
Turn Performance:
Time 5m after flip turn (s):
EG: 0.43±0.06; 0.34±0.06
CG: 0.50±0.11; 0.44±0.08

Sig. change in EG with lager ES (p<0.001; ES: 1.51)

Sig. diff. between 2 groups after training (p<0.001)
Start Performance:
Entry velocity (m/s):
EG: 12.77±1.65; 13.34±1.47
CG: 13.99±2.87; 13.53±2.81

Sig improve in EG with small ES (p=0.021, ES=0.36)

Turn Performance:
Average velocity after the flip (m/s):
EG: 11.77±1.68; 15.34±2.810
CG: 10.37±2.14; 11.58±2.11

Sig. change in both EG (p<0.001; ES: 1.54) & CG (p=0.026, ES: 0.57), with small or large ES

Sig. diff. between 2 groups after training (p<0.001)
Rejman et al (2017) Plyometric training (6-week)
EG: Plyometric training
Temporal Parameters:

Sig. improved in start & glide time (p<0.05)

No sig. changes in Take-off & flight time (p>0.05)

Spatial Parameters:

Sig. change in Glide angle (p<0.01)

No sig. changes in take-off, entry angles (p>0.05)
Average & Instantaneous Velocities:
Sig. decreased in Take-off, Flight & Glide average & instantaneous velocities (p<0.05)
Rebutini et al (2016) Plyometric long jump training
EG: Plyometric long jump training
N/A Kinematic Parameters
Displacement of Centre of Mass (m):
Horizontal: 2.56±0.21; 2.74±0.4
Vertical: 1.49±0.05; 1.44±0.07

Sig change in both horizontal (p=0.032) & vertical axis (p=0.040)

Take-off Velocity (m/s):
Horizontal: 1.84±0.19; 2.14±0.21
Vertical: 0.39±0.46; 0.34±0.42
Resultant:1.93±0.18; 2.13±0.28

Sig. improved in horizontal (p=0.012) & resultant velocities (p=0.020)

No sig. improvement in vertical axis (p=0.091)

Entry Velocity (m/s): 1.84±0.30; 2.24±0.29

Sig. change in horizontal axis (p=0.010)

Peak of Joint Angular Velocity (degree/s)
Right Knee: 523.56±137.56; 600.82±181.17
Left Knee:558.23±120.18; 603.59±162.44
Left Hip: 421.71±78.55; 490.90±97.50

Sig. change in left (p=0.040) & right (p=0.022) knees & left hip (p=0.023)

Rate of Torque Development (Nm/s):
Knee: 427.45±116.86; 604.43±240.42
Hip: 585.66±220.07; 1217.27±512.28

Sig change in knee (p=0.021) & hip (p=0.010)

Peak Torque (Nm)
Knee: 148.71±44.43; 185.19±71.91
Hip: 266.08±75.64; 393.44±124.53

Sig change in both knee (p=0.042) & hip (p=0.010)

Peak Force (N)
Horizontal: 209.20±37.60; 223.70±33.80
Vertical: 837.00±152.50; 847.33±164.23
Resultant: 890.00±154.92; 920.90±176.90

Sig. change in horizontal axis (p=0.047) & resultant force (p=0.040)

No sig. change in vertical axis (p=0.069)

Impulse (Ns):
221.90±61.60; 242.50±60.90

Sig change after training (p=0.037)

Angle of resultant force (Degree)
27.30±7.80; 22.20±10.30 Sig decrease after training (p=0.012)
Bishop et al (2009) Plyometric training (8-week)
EG: Plyometric training
CG: Normal Training
Swim time to 5.5m (s):
EG: 3.88±0.48; 3.29±0.47
CG: 3.94±0.39; 3.82±0.38
Flight Distance (Distance to head contact) (m):
EG: 1.70±0.19; 1.83±0.19
CG: 1.57±0.13; 1.50±0.17
Flight time (s):
EG: 1.32±0.09; 1.24±0.06
CG: 1.35±0.10; 1.38±0.20

Sig improve in EG (p<0.05)

Sig diff. between EG & CG after training (p<0.05)

Dive Angle (Degree):
EG: 26.7±7.10;34.5±6.43
CG: 23.2±7.10; 27.6±7.29

Sig. improve in EGs (p<0.001)

Entry Angle (Degree)
EG: 42.3±7.33; 47.5±3.95
CG: 45.6±5.71; 48.0±7.49 Sig. improve in EGs (p<0.05)
Velocity from Take-off to head contact (m/s):
EG: 1.29±0.18; 1.48±0.15
CG: 1.17±0.10; 1.10±0.16

Sig. change in EG (p<0.001)

Sig. diff. between EG and CG (p<0.001)

Sig. and strengthened correlations in EG with swim time to 5.5m after training

Velocity of take-off to contact (r=-0.66 → -0.91) distance to head contact (r=0.82 → 0.88)

Unit – degree/s: degree per second; m: metre; m/s: metre per second; N: Newton; Nm: Newton metre; Nm/s: Newton metre per second; Ns: Newton second; s: second. CG: Control group; EG: Experimental group.