Table 2 Mean (SD) for trunk and knee kinematics (degrees) as well as knee joint moments (Nm·kg-1) at peak knee abduction moment for males vs. females and 30° vs. 60° cutting angles.
Males Females Sex effect Angle effect Sex × Angle
30° 60° 30° 60° p η2p p η2p p η2p
Trunk flexion (+) 7.9 (8.0) 9.8 (6.9) 8.7 (5.2) 10.4 (5.1) 0.78 <0.01 0.02 0.22 0.91 <0.01
Trunk lateral flexion (-) -9.1 (4.4) -10.7 (4.9) -7.0 (2.5) -7.6 (3.4) 0.09 0.12 0.09 0.12 0.42 0.03
Trunk left axial rotation (+) -6.7 (8.4) 0.6 (8.1) -13.5 (9.9) -4.7 (12.1) 0.14 0.10 <0.001 0.78 0.43 0.03
Knee flexion (+) 28.7 (4.1) 24.8 (3.8) 29.3 (7.4) 24.7 (5.0) 0.89 <0.01 <0.001 0.53 0.65 0.01
Knee abduction (-) 3.4 (4.0) 2.4 (4.4) -0.2 (3.6) -2.0 (4.9) *, 0.03 0.20 0.001 0.38 0.26 0.06
Knee ext. rotation (+) 2.8 (6.1) 6.4 (7.9) 2.4 (5.3) 1.5 (7.0) 0.32 0.05 0.06 0.16 0.004 0.33
Knee flexion moment (+) -0.09 (0.83) 0.24 (0.74) 0.32 (0.57) 0.62 (0.66) 0.17 0.09 <0.001 0.46 0.87 <0.01
Knee abduction moment (-) -0.41 (0.28) -1.06 (0.37) -0.40 (0.25) -1.03 (0.45) 0.87 <0.01 <0.001 0.84 0.82 0.02
Knee ext. rotation moment (+) 0.00 (0.09) -0.09 (0.10) 0.00 (0.07) -0.12 (0.08) 0.58 0.01 <0.001 0.78 0.26 0.06
Main and interaction effects are reported using p values (p) and effect size (M²p).
* expresses a significant difference between males and females (main effect of sex)
† expresses a significant difference between 30° and 60° (main effect of cutting angle)
‡ expresses a significant sex ‡ cutting angle interaction.