Table 3. Mean (SD) for trunk muscles directed co-contraction ratios for males vs. females and 30° vs. 60° cutting angles.
Males Females Sex effect Angle effect Sex × Angle
30° 60° 30° 60° p η2p p η2p p η2p
Trunk flexors PRE 0.40 (0.38) 0.32 (0.25) 0.56 (0.21) 0.41 (0.27) 0.26 0.06 <0.01 0.27 0.39 0.04
Trunk flexors WA 0.25 (0.33) 0.28 (0.25) 0.19 (0.27) 0.20 (0.31) 0.51 0.02 0.65 0.01 0.78 <0.01
Trunk medial flexors PRE 0.00 (0.43) 0.36 (0.39) 0.05 (0.40) 0.29 (0.34) 0.92 <0.01 <0.001 0.49 0.42 0.03
Trunk medial flexors WA 0.56 (0.21) 0.49 (0.26) 0.33 (0.34) 0.44 (0.29) 0.21 0.07 0.64 0.01 0.04 0.18
Trunk left rotators PRE -0.03 (0.46) -0.38 (0.41) -0.05 (0.44) -0.32 (0.42) 0.88 <0.01 <0.001 0.46 0.54 0.02
Trunk left rotators WA -0.47 (0.25) -0.46 (0.31) -0.25 (0.51) -0.45 (0.34) 0.43 0.03 0.07 0.15 0.06 0.16
PRE and WA represent the pre-activation and weight acceptance phases, respectively. Main and interaction effects are reported using p values (p) and effect size (a²p).
† expresses a significant difference between 30° and 60° (main effect of cutting angle).
‡ expresses a significant sex t cutting angle interaction. No main effect of sex was reported