Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2019) 18, 596 - 603

Research article
Effects of Swimming Exercise on Serum Irisin and Bone FNDC5 in Rat Models of High-Fat Diet-Induced Osteoporosis
Yun-Seok Kang, Jae-Cheol Kim, Jeong-Seok Kim, Sang Hyun Kim 
Author Information
Department of Sports Science, College of Natural Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea

Sang Hyun Kim
✉ Chonbuk National University, 567 Beakje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, 54896, South Korea
Publish Date
Received: 20-03-2019
Accepted: 05-07-2019
Published (online): 19-11-2019
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This study aimed to investigate the expression of PGC-1α/FNDC5/irisin induced by attenuation of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced bone accrual and determine whether swimming exercise could improve attenuating bone accrual through this mechanism. Eight-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two groups for the first 8 weeks: CD, control diet (n = 10); and HFD, high-fat diet (n = 20). HFD-fed rats were again divided into two groups for further 8 weeks treatment: HFD (n = 10) and HFD with swimming exercise (HEx, n = 10). During this time, the CD group continuously fed the normal diet. Throughout the 16 weeks study period, the rats were weighed once every week. Samples were collected for analysis after last 8 weeks of treatment in the 16 weeks. Morphological and structural changes of the femur and tibial bone were observed using micro-CT, and Osteocalcin, CTX-1 and irisin levels in the blood were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of IL-1, β-catenin, FNDC5 and PGC-1α, in the femur were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Eight weeks of HFD increased body weight and epididymal fat mass and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Subsequent 8 weeks of swimming exercise improved obesity, BMD, bone microstructure, and bone metabolic factors in the HEx group. The irisin levels in the blood and the expressions of FNDC5 and PGC-1α in the bone were significantly lower in the HFD group than in the CD group, but elevated in the HEx group than in the HFD group. Swimming exercise is effective in improving obesity-worsened bone health and increases blood irisin and bone PGC-1α and FNDC5 levels.

Key words: Obesity, swimming, bone metabolism, bone mineral density, bone microstructure

           Key Points
  • Increased epididymal fat mass by high-fat diet attenuates bone accrual in growing rats.
  • Swimming exercise effectively improves the bone microstructure, which attenuate bone accrual by high-fat diet.
  • Swimming exercise improves bone accrual attenuation by reducing high-fat diet-induced inflammation and increasing expression of FNDC5 and PGC-1.
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