Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2019) 18, 798 - 804

Research article
The Relationship between General Upper-Body Strength and Pole Force Measurements, and Their Predictive Power Regarding Double Poling Sprint Performance
Esther Mende , Ansgar Schwirtz, Florian K. Paternoster
Author Information
Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Germany

Esther Mende
✉ MSc Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Georg-Brauchle-Ring 62, 80992 Munich, Germany
Publish Date
Received: 17-06-2019
Accepted: 18-10-2019
Published (online): 19-11-2019
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In recent years, there is an increasing importance of double poling (DP) performance regarding the outcome in classic cross-country skiing (XCS) races. So far, different approaches were used to predict DP performance but there is a lack of knowledge how general strength parameters are related to DP performance parameters gathered from in field-test situations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between general strength measurements of different upper-body segments and pole force measurements during a DP sprint exercise. In addition, multiple linear regressions were calculated to determine the predictive power of theses variables regarding DP sprint performance, represented as maximum velocity. Thirteen none-elite cross-country skiers performed two 60 m DP sprints at maximal speed on a tartan track using roller skis. In addition, maximum isometric and concentric strength tests were performed on a motor-driven dynamometer with four major upper-body segments (trunk flexion / extension, shoulder / elbow extension). Especially the mean pole force and the strength test parameters correlated significantly (r ≥ 0.615) in all except one comparison. However, regression analyses revealed that neither pole force parameters (R² = 0.495) nor isometric (R² = 0.456) or dynamic (R² = 0.596) strength test parameters could predict the DP performance significantly. This study showed that standardized isokinetic strength tests could be used to estimate pole force capabilities of XCS athletes. However, pole-force and strength test parameters failed to predict significantly maximal velocity during a DP sprint exercise, which might be attributed to the non-elite subject group.

Key words: XCS, cross-country skiing, DP, isokinetic strength test, pole force measurements, field-test condition

           Key Points
  • Pole force during DP sprint performance and general upper-body strength correlate to each other significantly in recreational skiers.
  • DP sprint performance can neither be predicted by pole force nor by upper-body strength parameters significantly.
  • Standardized isokinetic strength tests could be used to estimate pole force capabilities of xc-ski athletes.
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