Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2020) 19, 517 - 521

Research article
The Effects of Self-Talk on Shooting Athletes’ Motivation
Sang-Hyuk Park1, Bong-Suk Lim2, Seung-Taek Lim3,4,5, 
Author Information
1 Department of Sport Science, Korea Institute of Sport Science (KISS), Seoul, Republic of Korea
2 Korea Shooting Federation, Seoul, Republic of Korea
3 Institute of Sport Science, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea
4 Waseda Institute for Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama, Japan
5 Nasaret International Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea

Seung-Taek Lim
✉ Institute of Sport Science, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea
Publish Date
Received: 13-01-2020
Accepted: 11-06-2020
Published (online): 13-08-2020
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Self-talk is helpful in motivating shooting athletes and promoting effortful behavior. This study aimed to examine how the degree and intensity of self-talk of shooting athletes during matches affects their actual internal motivation and careers. In particular, the primary objective was to determine the effects of the level and intensity of self-talk on the effort value, fun and interest, tension and anxiety, and competence of intrinsic motivation for different levels of achievement and athletic performance. One hundred seventy participants who were shooting athletes registered with the Korea Shooting Federation (national team, n = 55; high performance team, n = 62; general team, n = 53). The self-talk questionnaire was developed to measure the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS). The intrinsic motivation scale developed and applicable to sports situations was used to measure the motivation of the shooting athletes. Significant differences were observed using MANOVA as well as the basic statistics of intrinsic motivation by self-talk. The intrinsic motivation self-talk was correlated to effort value, fun and interest, and competence. There was a significant relationship between shooting athletes’ self-talk and intrinsic motivation. This study indicated that athletes using self-talk experienced more fun and interest, and they perceived higher effort value and competence. Further, the multiple regression analysis revealed that self-talk affected the intrinsic motivational factors of effort value and fun and interest.

Key words: Athletes, motivational, performance, self-talk, shooting

           Key Points
  • Self-talk greatly affects sports performance.
  • Correlation of self-talk with effort value, fun and interest, and competence.
  • The relationship between self-talk and intrinsic motivation.
  • Increased positive self-talk was found to affect athletes’ effort value.
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