Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2021) 20, 466 - 473   DOI: https://doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2021.466

Research article
A Longitudinal Study of Bone Mineral Accrual during Growth in Competitive Premenarcheal Rhythmic Gymnasts
Liina Remmel1, Vallo Tillmann2, Anna-Liisa Tamm3, Eva Mengel2,3, Jaak Jürimäe1, 
Author Information
1 Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
2 Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
3 Tartu Health Care College, Tartu, Estonia

Jaak Jürimäe
✉ Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu 18. Ülikooli St., 50090 Tartu, Estonia
Email: jaak.jurimae@ut.ee
Publish Date
Received: 03-02-2021
Accepted: 18-05-2021
Published (online): 07-06-2021
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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this investigation was to study whether prolonged competitive rhythmic gymnastics training influenced bone mineral accrual in premenarcheal girls. Eighty-nine girls (45 rhythmic gymnasts [RG] and 44 untrained controls [UC]) between 7 and 9 years of age were recruited and measured annually for four years (not all participants were measured at every occasion). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the development of whole body (WB), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral content (BMC). In addition, body composition, blood adipokine and jumping performance characteristics were obtained. For longitudinal analyses, hierarchical mixed-effects models were constructed to predict differences in the development of WB, FN and LS BMC between RG and UC groups, while accounting for differences in body composition, blood adipokine and jumping performance values. It appeared that from 8 years of age, RG had lower (p < 0.05) fat mass and leptin values, and higher (p < 0.05) jumping performance measures in comparison with UC girls. Hierarchical mixed-effects models demonstrated that RG had 71.9 ± 12.0, 0.23 ± 0.11 and 1.39 ± 0.42 g more (p < 0.05) WB, FN and LS BMC, respectively, in comparison with UC girls. In addition, WB, FN and LS BMC increased more (p < 0.05) between 7 to 12 years of age in RG girls in comparison with UC. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the prolonged exposure to competitive rhythmic gymnastics trainings in premenarcheal girls is associated with greater bone mineral accrual despite lower body fat mass and leptin values.

Key words: Rhythmic gymnastics, premenarcheal girls, bone mineral content, longitudinal development, adipokines, fat mass


           Key Points
  • Study examined long-term association between the exposure to competitive rhythmic gymnastics training and bone mineral accrual at the whole body, femoral neck and lumbar spine sites of the skeleton in premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts.
  • Prolonged exposure to competitive rhythmic gymnastics training before menarche provides skeletal benefits to bone mineral accrual at all measured skeletal sites despite lowered body fat mass and leptin values.
 
 
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