Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2021) 20, 586 - 593   DOI:

Research article
The Effectiveness of Psychological Workshops for Coaches on Well-Being and Psychomotor Performance of Children Practicing Football and Gymnastics
Dominika Wilczyńska1, , Anna Łysak-Radomska2, Magdalena Podczarska-Głowacka2, Wojciech Skrobot2, Katarzyna Krasowska2, Ewelina Perzanowska2, Tomasz Dancewicz3, Patrycja Lipińska4, Will G. Hopkins5
Author Information
1 Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland
2 Faculty of Rehabilitation and Kinesiology, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland
3 Faculty of Finance and Management, WSB University in Gdansk,
4 Institute of Physical Education, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland
5 Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

Dominika Wilczyńska
✉ Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland
Publish Date
Received: 14-09-2020
Accepted: 30-06-2021
Published (online): 01-10-2021
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Coach workshops based on seven principles (inspiration, explanation, expectation, support, reward, appreciation, growth and winning) enhance the sport experience of adult athletes. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of such workshops with coaches of child athletes. Study participants were coaches of 57 9- to 12-year old girls (practicing gymnastics) and boys (practicing football). Three coaches of 28 children attended three workshops over 12 weeks, while a control group of 5 coaches of 29 children attended no workshops. Measures of well-being and psychomotor performance were taken on the children before and after the intervention; differences in mean changes between intervention and control groups were adjusted for baseline, standardized, and assessed with a conservative magnitude-based decision method. There were clear substantial effects of the workshop on motivation averaged across several dimensions (girls, large, most likely beneficial), on a decision test (boys, small-moderate, very likely beneficial), on state anxiety self-reflection (girls, moderate, likely harmful), and on reaction time (boys, small, possibly harmful). The beneficial effects of the workshop in this pilot study are encouraging, but the unclear and potentially harmful effects and the roles of presenter- and coach-specific effects need to be investigated further with a representative sample of coaches and more children before the workshop is recommended for implementation.

Key words: Psychology, motivation, youth, testing, coaching

           Key Points
  • Coaches of girls practicing gymnastics and boys practicing football took part in a pilot controlled trial of workshops based on principles of positive psychology.
  • There were some beneficial effects and some potentially harmful effects on well-being and psychomotor performance of the children. Some effects were unclear.
  • A larger study is justified to clarify more outcomes and to investigate modifying effects of presenter, coach and child characteristics.
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