Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2022) 21, 104 - 111   DOI:

Research article
Sex Moderates the Relationship between Perceptual-Motor Function and Single-Leg Squatting Mechanics
Jennifer A. Hogg1, , Jason M. Avedesian2, Jed A. Diekfuss3,4,5, Shellie N. Acocello1, Rylee D. Shimmin6, Elisabeth A. Kelley7, Deborah A. Kostrub8, Gregory D. Myer3,4,5,9, Gary B. Wilkerson1
Author Information
1 Department of Health and Human Performance, The University of Tennessee Chattanooga, Chattanooga, TN, USA
2 Clemson University Athletic Department, Clemson, SC, USA
3 Emory Sports Performance And Research Center (SPARC), Flowery Branch, GA, USA
4 Emory Sports Medicine Center, Atlanta, GA, USA
5 Department of Orthopaedics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
6 University of North Georgia, Dahlonega, GA, USA
7 Erlanger Sports and Health Institute, Chattanooga, TN, USA
8 Hughston Clinic Orthopaedics, Nashville, TN, USA
9 The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, MA, USA

Jennifer A. Hogg
✉ PhD University of Tennessee Chattanooga, 615 McCallie Ave., Chattanooga, TN, 37403, USA
Publish Date
Received: 25-11-2021
Accepted: 28-12-2021
Published (online): 15-02-2022
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To examine the isolated and combined effects of sex and perceptual-motor function on single-leg squatting mechanics in males and females. We employed a cross-sectional design in a research laboratory. Fifty-eight females (22.2 ± 3.5 yrs, 1.60 ± .07 m, 64.1 ± 13.0 kg) and 35 males (23.5 ± 5.0 yrs, 1.80 ± .06m, 84.7 ± 15.3 kg) free from time-loss injury in the six months prior, vertigo, and vestibular conditions participated in this study. Independent variables were sex, perceptual-motor metrics (reaction time, efficiency index, conflict discrepancy), and interaction effects. Dependent variables were peak frontal plane angles of knee projection, ipsilateral trunk flexion, and contralateral pelvic drop during single-leg squatting. After accounting for the sex-specific variance and perceptual-motor function effects on frontal plane squatting kinematics, female sex amplified the associations of: higher reaction time, lower efficiency index, and higher conflict discrepancy with greater right ipsilateral peak trunk lean (R2 = .13; p = .05); higher reaction time, lower efficiency index, and higher conflict discrepancy with decreased right contralateral pelvic drop (R2 = .22; p < .001); higher reaction time and lower conflict discrepancy with greater right frontal plane knee projection angle (R2 = .12; p = .03); and higher reaction time with greater left frontal plane knee projection angle (R2 = .22; p < .001). Female sex amplified the relationship between perceptual-motor function and two-dimensional frontal plane squatting kinematics. Future work should determine the extent to which perceptual-motor improvements translate to safer movement strategies.

Key words: Flanker, valgus, trunk lean, pelvic drop, anterior cruciate ligament, biomechanics

           Key Points
  • Sex moderated the relationship between perceptual-motor function and biomechanics, such that females with slower reaction times displayed more medially-projected knees, while males with slower reaction times exhibited altered frontal plane pelvic motion.
  • Clinically feasible choice reaction time measures can be used as gross indicators of one’s propensity for altered single-leg squatting mechanics.
  • Future work should investigate the extent to which these relationships can be modified in each sex.
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