Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2022) 21, 347 - 355   DOI:

Research article
The Effects of Standardised versus Individualised Aerobic Exercise Prescription on Fitness-Fatness Index in Sedentary Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Michael J. Kirton1, Mitchel T. Burnley1, Joyce S. Ramos1, Ryan Weatherwax2, Lance C. Dalleck3, 
Author Information
1 Caring Futures Institute, SHAPE Research Centre, Clinical Exercise Physiology, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
2 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America
3 Western Colorado University, Gunnison, Colorado, United States of America

Lance C. Dalleck
✉ Department of Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science at Western Colorado University
Publish Date
Received: 26-03-2022
Accepted: 10-06-2022
Published (online): 01-09-2022

A poor Fitness Fatness Index (FFI) is associated with type 2 diabetes incidence, other chronic conditions (Alzheimer’s, cancer, and cardiovascular disease) and all-cause mortality. Recent investigations have proposed that an individualised exercise prescription based on ventilatory thresholds is more effective than a standardised prescription in improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a key mediator of FFI. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the effectiveness of individualised versus standardised exercise prescription on FFI in sedentary adults. Thirty-eight sedentary individuals were randomised to 12-weeks of: (1) individualised exercise training using ventilatory thresholds (n = 19) or (2) standardised exercise training using a percentage of heart rate reserve (n = 19). A convenience sample was also recruited as a control group (n=8). Participants completed CRF exercise training three days per week, for 12-weeks on a motorised treadmill. FFI was calculated as CRF in metabolic equivalents (METs), divided by fatness determined by waist to height ratio (WtHR). A graded exercise test was used to measure CRF, and anthropometric measures (height and waist circumference) were assessed to ascertain WtHR. There was a difference in FFI change between study groups, whilst controlling for baseline FFI, F (2, 42) = 19.382 p < .001, partial η2 = 0.480. The magnitude of FFI increase from baseline was significantly higher in the individualised (+15%) compared to the standardised (+10%) (p = 0.028) and control group (+4%) (p = <.001). The main finding of the present study is that individualised exercise prescription had the greatest effect on improving FFI in sedentary adults compared to a standardised prescription. Therefore, an individualised based exercise prescription should be considered a viable and practical method of improving FFI in sedentary adults.

Key words: Ventilatory threshold, HRR, epidemiology, central obesity, physical activity

           Key Points
  • Cardiorespiratory exercise prescribed individually using ventilatory thresholds had a greater effect on improving Fitness-Fatness Index in sedentary adults compared to a comparable protocol using heart rate reserve.
  • Individualized exercise prescription using threshold metrics should be considered a viable method for improving the Fitness-Fatness Index to help aid in mitigating the future progression of non-communicable disease.
  • Greater improvements in the Fitness-Fatness Index were supported by positive improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2024 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.