Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2024) 23, 495 - 503   DOI:

Research article
A Randomized Controlled Trial to Determine the Impact of Resistance Training versus Aerobic Training on the Management of FGF-21 and Related Physiological Variables in Obese Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Yimei Duan1,2, Guotian Lu1, 
Author Information
1 College of Physical Education, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
2 Institute of Sports Medicine and Health, Chengdu Sports University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Guotian Lu
‚úČ College of Physical Education, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610101, Sichuan, China
Publish Date
Received: 03-04-2024
Accepted: 31-05-2024
Published (online): 01-09-2024

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) has been suggested as a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance in health-related metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Despite the metabolic effects of resistance (RT) and aerobic training (AT) on diabetes symptoms, uncertainty exists regarding the superiority of effects manifested through these training approaches on FGF-21 and biochemical and physiological variables associated with metabolic disorders in men diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a 12-week RT and AT on FGF-21 levels and symptoms associated with metabolic disorders in male individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-six sedentary obese diabetic men (40 to 45 years old) were matched based on the level of FGF-1. They and were randomly divided into two training groups (RT, n = 12 and AT, n = 12) performing three days per week of moderate-intensity RT or AT for 12 weeks and an inactive control group (n = 12). Both training interventions significantly improved FGF-21, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, hormonal changes, strength, and aerobic capacity. Subgroup analysis revealed that RT had greater adaptive responses (p < 0.01) in fasting blood sugar (ES = -0.52), HOMA-IR (ES = -0.87), testosterone (ES = 0.52), cortisol (ES = -0.82), FGF-21 (ES = 0.61), and maximal strength (ES = 1.19) compared to AT. Conversely, AT showed greater changes (p < 0.01) in cholesterol (ES = -0.28), triglyceride (ES = -0.64), HDL (ES = 0.46), LDL (ES = -0.73), and aerobic capacity (ES = 1.18) compared to RT. Overall, both RT and AT interventions yielded significant moderate to large ES in FGF-21 levels and enhanced the management of biochemical variables. RT is an effective method for controlling FGF-21 levels and glucose balance, as well as for inducing hormonal changes. On the other hand, AT is more suitable for improving lipid profiles in overweight men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Key words: Exercise, lipid profile, insulin resistance, metabolism

           Key Points
  • The integration of RT and AT could stimulate adaptive mechanisms involved in effectively managing symptoms associated with T2DM.
  • Comparative analysis indicates RT is effective for glucose metabolism and hormonal adaptations, whereas AT is better suited for managing lipid profiles.
  • Implementing of RT resulted in greater improvement in maximal strength, while AT led to a considerable increase in aerobic capacity.
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